How to monitor your system performance on Linux
It’s really very tough job for every System or Network administrator to monitor and debug Linux System Performance problems every day. After being a Linux Administrator for 15 years in IT industry, I came to know that how hard is to monitor and keep systems up and running. For this reason, we’ve compiled the list of frequently used command line monitoring tools that might be useful for every Linux/Unix System Administrator. These commands are available under all flavors of Linux and can be useful to monitor and find the actual causes of performance problem. This list of commands shown here are very enough for you to pick the one that is suitable for your monitoring scenario.
1. Top – Linux Process Monitoring
Linux Top command is a performance monitoring program which is used frequently by many system administrators to monitor Linux performance and it is available under many Linux/Unix like operating systems. The top command used to dipslay all the running and active real-time processes in ordered list and updates it regularly. It display CPU usage, Memory usage, Swap Memory, Cache Size, Buffer Size, Process PID, User,Commands and much more. It also shows high memory and cpu utilization of a running processess. The top command is much userful for system administrator to monitor and take correct action when required. Let’s see top command in action.
2. VmStat – Virtual Memory Statistics
Linux VmStat command used to display statistics of virtual memory, kernerl threads, disks, system processes,I/O blocks, interrupts, CPU activity and much more. By default vmstat command is not available under Linux systems you need to install a package called sysstat that includes a vmstat program. The common usage of command format is.
3. Lsof – List Open Files
Lsof command used in many Linux/Unix like system that is used to display list of all the open files and the processes. The open files included are disk files, network sockets, pipes, devices and processes. One of the main reason for using this command is when a disk cannot be unmounted and displays the error that files are being used or opened. With this commmand you can easily identify which files are in use. The most common format for this command is.
4. Tcpdump – Network Packet Analyzer
Tcpdump one of the most widely used command-line network packet analyzer or packets sniffer program that is used capture or filter TCP/IP packets that received or transferred on a specific interface over a network. It also provides a option to save captured packages in a file for later analysis. tcpdump is almost available in all major Linux distributions.
# tcpdump -i eth0
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 96 bytes 22:08:59.617628 IP tecmint.com.ssh > 126.96.36.199.static-mumbai.vsnl.net.in.28472: P 2532133365:2532133481(116) ack 3561562349 win 9648 22:09:07.653466 IP tecmint.com.ssh > 188.8.131.52.static-mumbai.vsnl.net.in.28472: P 116:232(116) ack 1 win 9648 22:08:59.617916 IP 184.108.40.206.static-mumbai.vsnl.net.in.28472 > tecmint.com.ssh: . ack 116 win 64347
5. Netstat – Network Statistics
Netstat is a command line tool for monitoring incoming and outgoing network packets statistics as well as interface statistics. It is very useful tool for every system administrator to monitor network performance and troubleshoot network related problems.
# netstat -a | more Active Internet connections (servers and established) Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State tcp 0 0 *:mysql *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 *:realm-rusd *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 *:ftp *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:ipp *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:smtp *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:smtp localhost.localdomain:42709 TIME_WAIT tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:smtp localhost.localdomain:42710 TIME_WAIT tcp 0 0 *:http *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 *:https *:* LISTEN
6. Htop – Linux Process Monitoring
Htop is a much advanced interactive and real time Linux process monitoring tool. This is much similar to Linuxtop command but it has some rich features like user friendly interface to manage process, shortcut keys,vertical and horizontal view of the processes and much more. Htop is a third party tool and doesn’t included in Linux systems, you need to install it using YUM package manager tool. For more information on installation read our article below.
7. Iotop – Monitor Linux Disk I/O
Iotop is also much similar to top command and Htop program, but it has accounting function to monitor and display real time Disk I/O and processes. This tool is much useful for finding the exact process and high used disk read/writes of the processes.
8. Iostat – Input/Output Statistics
IoStat is simple tool that will collect and show system input and output storage device statistics. This tool is often used to trace storage device performance issues including devices, local disks, remote disks such asNFS.
Linux 2.6.18-238.9.1.el5 (tecmint.com) 09/13/2012 avg-cpu: %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle 2.60 3.65 1.04 4.29 0.00 88.42 Device: tps Blk_read/s Blk_wrtn/s Blk_read Blk_wrtn cciss/c0d0 17.79 545.80 256.52 855159769 401914750 cciss/c0d0p1 0.00 0.00 0.00 5459 3518 cciss/c0d0p2 16.45 533.97 245.18 836631746 384153384 cciss/c0d0p3 0.63 5.58 3.97 8737650 6215544 cciss/c0d0p4 0.00 0.00 0.00 8 0 cciss/c0d0p5 0.63 3.79 5.03 5936778 7882528 cciss/c0d0p6 0.08 2.46 2.34 3847771 3659776
9. IPTraf – Real Time IP LAN Monitoring
IPTraf is an open source console-based real time network (IP LAN) monitoring utility for Linux. It collects a variety of information such as IP traffic monitor that passes over the network, including TCP flag information, ICMP details, TCP/UDP traffic breakdowns, TCP connection packet and byne counts. It also gathers information of general and detaled interface statistics of TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, non-IP, IP checksum errors, interface activity etc.